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Encryption: ENISA recommends 15360 Bit encryption


European Data Protection 10, NIST 0


Immediately use RSA 3072

RSA 15360 is recommended in the longer term (page 35)

**Note: IVPN have already moved to RSA 4096


**Time to ditch RSA 2048


Use WPA2 as a matter of urgency (page 61)

Bluetooth is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks (page 63)


Beware CBC based encryption (page 37).

PKCS# – This encryption method defined in [281,282] has no modern security proof, although it is used in the SSL/TLS protocol extensively (page 48)



  1. NSA advice to ditch the use of ECC (as its a stopgap solution)

2. Weak DH


Many of my hunches are being proven right; these include a distrust of IPSec ( this I’ve considered a weak compromise solution from the very start).

Personally I would promote a safety factor of two as the minimum standard for encryption.  Serpent offered a safety factor of over 3.5, whereas AES128 had a safety factor of 1.11.  So you can see my point.

If NIST weakens Keccak, then move over to Threefish.  We need to watch carefully how NIST plan to weakened Keccak – and perhaps encode the original design in defiance of NIST.


Which is the safest VPN on the market? Who do I use for a VPN?



One Comment
  1. Keep in mind that 15360 RSA key only offers 256 bit of security. If you posted this to defend your claim that we need more than 256 bit of security, then you failed. Sorry. Also, the link you posted do say “longterm” and that could be anything between 30 to 100 years.

    The fact is that no one has yet broken the deprecated (that no one even uses anymore) 1024 RSA key that offers only 80 bit of security. It still takes considerable computing power to brute force 80 bits. The world record for brute forcing a key is 64 bit. That took two years of effort by distributed-net (many computers trying together), 80 bit is 65,536 times stronger than 64 bit, so if you have a network of computers that can break 64 bit in 2 hours (faster than supercomputer), it will take 14 years on the same machine to break 80 bits.

    RSA 2048 offers 110 bit seurity and is clearly in the safe zone for the next 50 years, unless the attacker can weaken it more than 110 bits

    AES 128 and up are clearly on another level (far more secure).


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