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How to convert a USB into FAT16 on Windows 7 – for PLC, Cisco IOS USB. Transfer Flash to CISCO IOS USB drive

Many of us support manufacturing and process control industries, where programmable logic controllers need firmware updates on FAT formatted usb drives.  The surprising thing is that Cisco IOS USB needs FAT16 formatted disks too.

Step 1: For small USB drives

Put your USB into your Windows 7 computer

Open command prompt ( start > all programs > accessories > command prompt.   or    start > run > cmd)

Picture of step 1
 Note the cluster size is 4KB or 4,096 bytes in each allocation unit.

Step 2: FAT format command

format x: /fs:FAT


format h: /fs:FAT – where the USB drive is in the h: drive
This will not work on a larger sized USB drive (eg 16 GB)


#cd usbflash0:

#cd usbflash1:


#cd usbflash ?

Cisco routers need FAT16 formatted disks.  FAT16 is a very disappointing structure for Cisco to use, as 1-2GB usb pens are basically obsolete.

Limitations of FAT16 are listed here:

On the Internet there are various “max” filesizes quoted for FAT16.  The answer actually depends on the “cluster size” selected during the format – a 4KB cluster gives a max volume size of 256MB, whereas a cluster size of 32KB gives us 2GB.  Due to the shortage of small 256MB drives, you’ll need to locate 2GB or 4GB usb drives.  In the first picture you can see a format size of 4KB clusters.
usb fat max size is 4gb

Cisco USB support starts at IOS 12.3(14)

Q. When will USB support be available?

A. Support for USB interfaces will be available in Cisco IOS ® release 12.3(14)T and later releases depending on the respective routing platforms.
Q. Can I format the USB Flash module on the router?

A. Yes. You can format the module on either a router or a PC. You must specify “FAT16 file system” as the file system for the PC format process to use.

Plan B – Convert an 8 or 16GB USB for Cisco IOS

Download a free partition wizard for windows called EaseUS.  Beware though, as it’s loaded with freeware, ads and browser hijackers in the free version.  Insert your USB drive… EaseUS will detect it.  Select the partition (h: drive in my case), right click > Create partition.
EASEUS CISCO RIGHT CLICK CREATE PARTITIONEaseus will want the details of the new partition.
  • Create as: Primary
  • File system: FAT
  • Size: 2097 or 2 GB
easeus 2gb primary partion
You’ll get a warning – select “yes”
Easeus can create multiple primary partitions on a USB drive – and they can vary in size.
Here we have created a FAT16 2GB partition, and a CISCO2 FAT16 4GB partition

Remember – the maximum number of primary partitions is FOUR.

easeus cisco 4 primary partition limit
So we can divide an 8GB USB into 4 separate FAT16 partitions.

Plug USB into CISCO Router

#show usbflash all

#show usbflash0:

“No files on device” means the Cisco IOS is reading the USB.

#cd usbflash0:


#copy flash usbflash0:

You’ll be prompt to enter in the source file of the Cisco IOS.
Then the router will copy the IOS over to your USB pen.

In the end, I went for less than 2GB primary partition…

to make certain the cluster size was 32KB.

easeus cluster size 32kb format
Here we go…

#show flash:

get the name of the flash file on the router – which is called mulan

# show usbflash all

This makes sure the router is reading the USB drive

cisco mulan show usbflash all

#cd usbflash0:

#copy flash usbflash0:

Copy Source to Destination….

cisco mulan copy flash to usbflash0
Success – we get all the CCCCC’s when writing to the USB drive
cisco copy flash usbflash0 with lots of cccc


#show usbflash0:

Here we see the file bytes available, and bytes used.

cisco mula show usbflash0 after ios copied to usb
 Check USB drive for the IOS file
cisco mulan has ios on usb
Take away Conclusions
* Use a 1 or 2 GB USB pen if you can find one around.
* Cisco IOS needs USB 1.1
* Cisco IOS needs FAT16 formating of the USB
* It’s much easier to format on Windows PC with the free EaseUS – but watch out for the bundled adware – it’s a real pain.
* You can convert an new 8GB or 16GB USB drive for FAT16.
* Cisco is seriously out of date with regards to the use of USB drives for storing the IOS.  Suggestions would include use of USB 2 or USB 3 to improve transfer speeds.  Use of FAT 32, so that larger USB drives could be used.

How to Uninstall Windows 10 – The Visual Guide – Most asked question of the Month

The most asked question of the month is how to remove Windows 10.  The relief on most peoples face is a treat.  The only catch is that you have 30 days in which to revert…so the clock is ticking.  Here is the visual guide of how to remove Windows 10 and revert back to Windows 7 or Windows 8.

The only thing we have to do to uninstall Windows 10 is go to

Start Menu -> Settings…

…then select Update & security.

There, we go to “Recovery” where we will find the “Go back to Windows 8.1” option (or Windows 7, if that was the case) and click “Get started”.


Not everyone will be able to uninstall Windows 10 after an upgrade. We need three things:

1) To have upgraded to Windows 10 with an option other than “Nothing”

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 00

The default option is to keep personal files and apps. If we changed it when we did the upgrade and selected “Nothing”, it is impossible to uninstall Windows 10.

2) To have kept the Windows.old folder on Local Disk (C:)

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 01

This folder contains our previous version of Windows, and without it, we can’t revert to anything.

It’s not easy to delete Windows.old, it needs a specific procedure, so if you deleted it, you would remember.

3) To have an installation less than 30 days old

Since Windows 10 launched a couple of days ago, at the time of this writing, this won’t be a problem for anyone. If however you are reading this guide later, you only have 30 days to uninstall Windows 10 since the day you did the upgrade.

After the 30 days, the Windows.old folder is deleted automatically, and you can’t uninstall Windows 10 anymore. You will need to format the hard drive and reinstall Windows 7 or Windows 8.1.

The only thing we have to do to uninstall Windows 10 is go to Start Menu -> Settings…

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 02

…then select Update & security.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 03

There, we go to “Recovery” where we will find the “Go back to Windows 8.1” option (or Windows 7, if that was the case) and click “Get started”.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 04

Microsoft wants to know why we want to uninstall Windows 10. We can answer them honestly, make fun of them, or not answer them at all, it won’t affect our uninstallation.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 05

The Windows 10 uninstall process will recover some of the programs we had on the previous Windows installation, but it might not recover everything.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 06

There is also a reminder that we should remember our login information for the previous version of Windows.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 07

And this is the final step before we uninstall Windows 10. After this, there is no turning back.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 08

The system will restart, stay on the following screen for a few minutes – depending on our system’s and hard drive’s speed.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 09

And after that, we are back to our Windows 8.1 or Windows 7 installation.

Uninstall Windows 10 and Revert to Previous Windows 10

That’s it. We have now uninstalled Windows 10.


Check out the pcsteps site for all “removal of Windows 10” features… it’s a great site.

Microsoft are determined that you will use bing, and not privacy based search engines such as or  This article will get duckduckgo up and running for you. NEVER accept Bing, Google or Yahoo as your default search engine.  This is the first rule.


Now you can all sleep again… we’re back to Windows 7.

Digital surveillance ‘worse than Orwell’, says new UN privacy chief – Guardian

The first UN privacy chief has said the world needs a Geneva convention style law for the internet to safeguard data and combat the threat of massive clandestine digital surveillance.

But for Cannataci – well-known for having a mind of his own – it is not America but Britain that he singles out as having the weakest oversight in the western world: “That is precisely one of the problems we have to tackle. That if your oversight mechanism’s a joke, and a rather bad joke at its citizens’ expense, for how long can you laugh it off as a joke?”

Cannataci’s mandate is extensive. He is empowered to:

  • Systematically review government policies and laws on interception of digital communications and collection of personal data.
  • Identify actions that intrude on privacy without compelling justification.
  • Assist governments in developing best practices to bring global surveillance under the rule of law.
  • Further articulate private sector responsibilities to respect human rights.
  • Help ensure national procedures and laws are consistent with international human rights obligations.

“The way we handle it is going to be the difference. But Orwell foresaw a technology that was controlling. In our case we are looking at a technology that is ever-developing, and ever-developing possibly more sinister capabilities.” Because of this, the Snowden revelations were very important, he said.

UK surveillance “worse than 1984,” says new UN privacy chief – Ars Technica

The newly appointed UN special rapporteur on privacy, Joseph Cannataci, has called the UK’s oversight of surveillance “a rather bad joke at its citizens’ expense,” and said that the situation regarding privacy is “worse” than anything George Orwell imagined in his novel 1984. Speaking to The Guardian, Cannataci said: “at least Winston [a character in Orwell’s 1984] was able to go out in the countryside and go under a tree and expect there wouldn’t be any screen, as it was called. Whereas today there are many parts of the English countryside where there are more cameras than George Orwell could ever have imagined. So the situation in some cases is far worse already.”

The mandate of the new post of UN special rapporteur on privacy is broad. Cannataci, who is a professor of law at the University of Malta, and uses neither Facebook nor Twitter, is empowered to review government policies on digital surveillance and the collection of personal data, and to identify activities that harm privacy protection without any compelling justification. He can also give his views on how the private sector should be addressing its human rights responsibilities in this field.

There are four main tasks he has set himself: drawing up a universal law on surveillance; tackling the business models of the big Internet companies; defining what “privacy” exactly entails; and raising awareness of these issues among the public. The Guardian quotes him as saying the world “needs a ‘Geneva convention for the internet” to safeguard data and combat the threat of massive clandestine digital surveillance.” Cannataci recognises that he will be unable to achieve this within his three-year mandate, or even if it is renewed, but believes that it is important to take a long-term view.

He acknowledges that Edward Snowden will be looked upon as “a traitor by some and a hero by others,” but says that his leaks were “very important” because they confirmed what many working in the fields of privacy and data protection had believed to be the case. Snowden’s revelations also demonstrated “the extent to which [government surveillance] has gone out of control,” something many hope Cannataci will try to address in his new role. Cannataci was chosen for the role after the first-ranked candidate, the Estonian Katrin Nyman-Metcalf, was blocked on the grounds that “she would not be a strong enough critic of US surveillance.”

Updates Make Windows 7 and 8 Spy On You Like Windows 10

Windows 10 has been launched and already installed on more than 50 million computers worldwide. It is now a known fact that Windows 10 user data is being sent back to Microsoft servers back in Redmond, Washington. Well, now new updates that are being deployed to all Windows 7, 8 and 8.1 machines will turn their computers into a big piece of spyware, just like their predecessor, Windows 10.

The updates in question are KB3075249 and KB3080149. if installed, these updates are known to report your data back to Microsoft servers, without user interaction.

KB3075249 Microsoft Update adds telemetry points to ‘consent.exe’ in Windows 7, 8 and 8.1, allowing for remote monitoring of everything that happens within the operating system.

KB3080149 ensures that all “down-level devices” receive the same updates and treatment as Windows 10 boxes get.

DELL OEM – Windows 7 – Professional download

This excellent German site has a list of all DELL OEM disks for Windows 7.  It offers both Windows 32 bit and 64 bit, in several different languages.

Dell OEM Windows 7 Start

Dell OEM Windows 7 Home

Dell OEM Windows 7 Professional

Dell OEM WIndows 7 Ultimate

You’ll need to download the file as a torrent – and burn to disk.  Then enter the Microsoft serial number (that’s on a sticker on the side of your Dell PC), and away you go.

Step 1 – Make sure you can download torrents

Select the Language, Windows 7 version (to match your sticker and serial number).

This maybe Windows 7 Pro or Windows 7 Home – check first before downloading.

dell windows 7 oem disk

This is the greatest find ever for Dell owners.

Windows 10 Is Full Blown Electronic Tyranny 1) Katherine Albrecht


I agree with Katherine Albrecht, most consumers would rather pay £200 for an operating system, than install Windows 10 and it’s keyloggers and surveillance that listens to your private conversations at home.

Microsoft takes a backup copy of all your files, even your most confidential files.

Startmail operates outside of the US, so that court orders cannot be served to obtain your email.

Yet Windows 10 sidesteps that, as your encryption keys are transmitted to Microsoft.

The same applies to your bank accounts, dealings with doctors, lawyers, Microsoft knows the username and password of your bank accounts.  It bypasses encryption, as it transmits all your secret keys and passwords directly to Microsoft.

Stay with Windows 7.

University of South Wales, Newport – City Campus – World’s prettiest, most Iconic Riverside University

Congratulations if you are due to start in September 2015.  It’s the start of a love affair.

Ground floor = Reception, small coffee shop, exhibition floor

B = Books, Breakfast and Bacon.  1st floor is the library and Canteen – which serves great Breakfasts.

D = Duffers floor.  Information Security and Forensics. Yay!

Not everyone will be so lucky as to study at City Campus. But if you get the chance, take it.

You’ll be in love with her, for the rest of your life.


Why study at the University of South Wales

There are lots of reasons. Here are just a few:

  • February and September starts for BA (Hons) Business top-ups as well as many Masters programmes
  • One of the top 10 largest universities in the UK
  • The largest university in Wales with over 33,000 students
  • The UK’s leading university for support (winner of the Times Higher Education Outstanding Support for Students Award 2012)
  • Outstanding teaching quality with 12 excellence awards
  • 94%* of our graduates are in employment or further study six months after course completion (HESAPerformance Indicator for Employment of Leavers 2013/14)
  • Scholarships of up to £2,500 per year available to international students
  • Students from the European Union may benefit from reduced university fees due to the Welsh Tuition Fee Grant, a number of sports, financial and IT related undergraduate bursaries and scholarships worth up to £1000 as well as a Postgraduate scholarships of up to £1500.
  • Courses based on the real world – our links with industry in the UK and overseas mean that our teaching is informed by actual practice. We work closely with employers to help ensure that what you learn meets the demands of the workplace, and regularly update modules to reflect real-life trends
  • Low-cost of living ( Cost of Living Survey)

**Waves** to University South Wales, Newport.

Google Dorks – How to exploit the Google Database

Google is the most powerful search engine, which makes it the most dangerous in the hands of either those who know too little, or don’t care about privacy.  Let me introduce you to Google dorks, *THIS* will make you cringe.

Google Hacking Database

Step 1 – Google Search Terms

Google will index your exported CSV files of Master passwords.  It will index many dangerous things.  So let me show you how dangerous Google can be.

ext:csv intext:”password”

google dorks code

This is what it looks like in the Google search bar.

google dorks 1

Step 2 – Google returns results

Click on a link… any link.

Here we see the second link is to “TurboPasswords CSV Export File”.

google dorks 2 turbo paswords

So what has been published in TurboPasswords?

Email, passwords, Admin passwords and even answers to security questions.

Yes, I know that you are speechless right now, but trust me, it gets worse.

google dorks 3

All I ask is that you do not publish your master password lists.  Google will faithfully index them for everyone.

Alas, Google will also index photos.

I have just been traumatised over the last 5 minutes looking at nightmare photos, from naked men wrestling to some poor lady in bed.  Why she’s taken such an unflattering photo, is a mystery to all of mankind.

google dorks photos published

Nightmare photos is utterly bizarre, beyond my comprehension,

google dorks photos

Please, I beg you, do not do this – I am in need of Counseling.

Kali Linux 2.0 – Ready to download

Kali Linux 2.0 has been released, which is known as Kali Sana.


Download Links

VMWare downloads of Kali 2.0

Virtual Box downloads of Kali 2.0

So what are you waiting for?


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